Origins: Brain and Self Organization

By Karl Pribram | Go to book overview
whose intervals are integral multiples of a particular value, and the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of sub- threshold stimuli [11] [44] It also excludes explicitly supra-threshold stimuli (e.g., [11] [27]. From a biological viewpoint (i.e., physiological, psycho-physical, etc.) signal-to-noise ratio improvement is interesting always, both when revealing sub-liminal stimuli and regardless of the afferent discharges pattern (e.g. see Figures 1-II, 2-b, 8-c), and when making the no less significant supra-threshold ones more recognizable. Therefore, the biological domain within which stochastic resonance can be applied does not cover entirely that where living receptors perform; furthermore, the excluded portion includes important situations. These two features impose bounds on the biological value of stochastic resonance. A theory that covered the entire range of sub- and supra-threshold stimuli that pervade everyday life would have a broader, more meaningful domain of applicability, and be more valuable for physiologists. Even better yet in physiological terms would be theories that, in addition to fidelity improvement in the entire range, explained other noise-induced consequences (see above). So that this is not misinterpreted, we add our agreement with those who believe stochastic resonance to be an important theoretical construct with many significant applications in the practical sciences already, and more are to come.Clearly, the role of noise in neural coding is a multi- disciplinary subject; it has attracted, and profited by, the joint contribution of several experimental and formal approaches. A balanced perspective, useful for any scientific endeavor, is particularly desirable (though it may be harder to achieve) when, as here, viewpoints are multiple and reflect disparate backgrounds. Needed, obviously, is a first evaluation based on the entire picture and all disciplines. This overall evaluation, though very necessary, is not sufficient. Just as important is one enunciated after extraction of the chapter from the multi-disciplinary context, and voiced in strictly biological terms. Indeed, when attempting a balanced perspective of noise and neural coding, evaluations based on strictly biological criteria are indispensable ingredients. Biologically, then, this research endeavor, finding a rationale in the natural history of everyday life, generating over decades a coherent set of experimental observations, and drawing sensible biological conclusions, has demonstrated a life of its own and delineated a clearcut identity. Judged as such, detached from other viewpoints and independent of otherwise significant considerations, noise and neuronal processing stands by itself as a self contained, genuine and significant chapter in the Physiology of the Nervous System. It goes without saying that parallel theoretical developments provided indispensable conceptual frameworks for understanding formal issues, for planning further experimental approaches, and so forth.
Acknowledgments
This work was supported by Trent H. Wells jr. Inc.
References
[1] J. C. Allen, W. M. Schaffer and D. Rosko, "Chaos reduces species extinction by amplifying local population noise", Nature, vol. 364, pp. 229-232, 1993.
[2] D. J. Amit, Modelling Brain Function, The World of Attractor Neural Networks, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
[3] F. T. Arecchi and A. Califano, "Low frequency hopping phenomena in a nonlinear system with many attractors", Physics Letters A, vol. 101, pp. 443-446, 1984.
[4] F. G. Ball and J. A. Rice, "Stochastic models for ion channels", Mathematical Biosciences, vol. 112, pp. 189-206, 1992.
[5] R. Benzi, G. Parisi, A. Sutera and A. Vulpiani, "Stochastic resonance in climatic change", Tellus, vol. 34, pp. 10-16, 1982.
[6] P. C. Bressloff and J. G. Taylor, "Discrete time leaky integrator network with synaptic noise", Neural Networks, vol. 4, pp. 789-801, 1991.
[7] D. R. Brillinger, "The identification of point process systems", Annals of Probability,vol. 3, pp. 909-924, 1975.

-327-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Origins: Brain and Self Organization
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 718

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.