WHAT used to be called "illuminism" in the Latin countries and is usually called "rationalism" elsewhere, was an effort to substitute for alleged "irrational" institutions institutions idealised as "rational." But this attitude toward public affairs has been pretty well demolished by political journalism in the period between the end of the eighteenth century and our own time; and its fallacies are now generally taken account of in many phrases of common currency, if not in the ideas commonly prevalent on political and social matters. However, the dogmas of rationalism are forever getting to their feet again, undermining existing. institutions, sapping the foundations of our faith in them. And there is no simple formula for disposing of its doctrines. We always feel that there is an element of truth. in what the rationalists say. So it is always.