Doctrine. The works from which extracts are taken are given only a brief heading in the text; full details will be found in the Bibliography. Unless otherwise stated: passages are extracts only; the author's own citations are omitted; where the original bears paragraph or section numbers these have been preserved; where textbooks are referred to but not reproduced, the number given is that of the paragraph not the page.
Jurisprudence. Cases are referred to in the usual French way. Thus Cons. const. 16.7. 1970 means a decision of the Conseil constitutionel given on that day. Cass. civ. 9.5. 1983 means a decision of a Chambre civile of the Cour de cassation. The case's own docket number is added only where there might otherwise be confusion between it and some other decision handed down by the same body on the saine day.
The method of compiling law reports has changed from time to time, and not all use the same conventions. The letters D. and S. refer to the most commonly cited reports of Dalloz and Sirey; D.S. to the years when they are united. The last number is always the page; but if, between it and the date, there appears the number 1, 2, or 3, this refers, respectively, to the section of the volume dealing with decisions of the Cour de cassation, of other civil courts, and of the administrative jurisdictions. The pages of each section are numbered afresh. Until 1924, Dalloz also issued parts 4 (legislation) and 5 (summaries). In the case of the Recueil Dalloz, D.H. refers to the part entitled Hebdomadaire which used to appear weekly with unannotated reports; D.A. means the part once entitled Analytique; D.C. that once called Critique.
In its modern form, D.S. still bears numbers but they are rarely used in citation: instead Chron. means Chroniques and refers to articles and comment; J. means Jurisprudence; and L. means legislative material. If the citation is simply D.S. foUowed by a year and a page, the reader will find the case at that page in the section of the volume devoted to jurisprudence.
The Gazette du Palais is published with two volumes every year, consequently the number refers to the volume. Its material is distributed under titles similar to those used by D.S. and described