the task now is not to create new institutions or write new laws, but to make existing ones work better. For example, over the past decade Russian courts acquired in law considerable new power, but there remains the challenge of realizing and consolidating it. This process will require advances in inter-institutional cooperation (between courts themselves and between courts and executive bodies), strengthening the organizations of judicial self-government, increasing rates of implementation of court decisions, and informing the public of the new remedies available to them. Likewise, improving the training of judges calls for not only curricular reform and new technologies but also less dramatic initiatives such as developing challenging judicial internships for law students and new opportunities for graduates to work as clerks in the courts. Finally, we see a great need for further analysis of the practice of courts and the judiciary in Russia, especially collaborative studies (evaluations) of the implementation of reform measures.