This study identified differences in VRISE experienced under alternative VE display conditions. Specifically significant differences were found between HMD and desktop (for change in nausea symptoms) and HMD and Reality Theatre (for nausea, oculomotor and disorientation). In both cases, participants experienced higher increases in symptoms as a result of participation in the HMD condition.
Disorientation and Total SSQ scores significantly increased post immersion for all display types. Oculomotor scores significantly increased for HMD, Desktop and Projection screen, and Nausea increased significantly only in the HMD condition. These results, and examination of the symptom profiles, suggest that different display mediums provoke different types and levels of sickness symptoms. However, display type is only one variable involved in the multifactorial production of VRISE. In particular, close examination of the influence of VE design and the impact of individual participant characteristics is required, and is being completed as part of on-going research at VIRART.
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Kennedy, R. S., Lane, N. E., Berbaum, K. S. & Lilienthal, M. G. ( 1993) "Simulator Sickness Questionnaire: An enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness". The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3( 3), 203-220.
The work presented in this paper was funded by UK Health and Safety Executive grant 3812/R67.130. The authors also wish to thank Tim Whitehouse of The Centre for Industrial and Medical Informatics for his cooperation in this experiment.