# Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

FRONTIER: An Application of A Pen Based
Interface to An ITS For Guiding Fraction
Calculation

Kenzi Watanabe(1), Teisuke Yamaguchi(1), Hiroyuki Egashiral(1), Joe Ito(1),
Yasuhisa Okazaki(1), Hiroki Kondo(1), Masayoshi Okamoto(2)
and Takatoshi Yoshikawa (2)
(1) Saga University, Japan. (2) SANYO Electric Co., Ltd., Japan.
(1) 1, Honjyo, Saga 840-85 10, Japan.
TEL: +81-952-28-8828 FAX: +81-952-28-8650
E-mail: watanabe@is.saga-u.ac.jp

1
Introduction

We have developed an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) named as "FRONTIER" (a FRaction calculatiON TraInER), which has a pen based interface using a pen X terminal. FRONTIER enables a student writes fraction expressions using a pen.

Fraction calculation is one of the most difficult subject in mathematical education in Japanese elementary schools. A lot of people expect that an ITS, which has flexible and individualized tutoring facilities, for fraction calculation will be developed.

We have developed an ITS for guiding fraction. Distinctive feature of the system is that the system can recognize student's context of solving processes and guide them in accordance with their context ( Watanabe, Okazaki, Tadaki and Kondo 1994).

As using this system, a student inputs not only a final answer but also its solving processes. Since he/she should input many fraction expressions, we develop a pen based interface to enable he/she can input and correct fraction expressions easily, naturally and quickly.

A purpose of our research is to develop an ITS for practical use, so that we must achieve that every function of the system, especially response of the interface and

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