Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview

Repeats, Reformulations, and Emotional
Speech: Evidence for the Design of Human-
Computer Speech Interfaces

Kerstin Fischer
University of Hamburg


1
Introduction: The Problem

At human-computer speech interfaces, irritations caused by system malfunctions cannot be completely avoided. These irritations are not just local problems which can be easily overcome; they constitute severe problems for human-to- computer communication in at least two ways:

Firstly, the acoustic characteristics of the users' utterances have been found to be very different if they constitute repetitions or reformulations of previous utterances. That is, if the system claims not to have understood a contribution by the speaker, the speaker will repeat his utterance, however, possibly with a different stress pattern, different phrasal intonation, with a strong emphasis on exact pronunciation or even hyper-articulation, and short pauses between the words. Some of these properties may cause severe problems for current automatic speech processing systems; for instance, Levow ( 1998) finds that the error rate in speech recognition rises from 16% to 44% for repetitions. That means that the characteristics of an utterance are very different if it constitutes a repetition of a previous contribution, and that these differences cannot be neglected in human-computer interaction (HCI).

The second problem concerns the fact that speakers may become emotionally involved when they are repeatedly confronted with errors by the automatic speech processing system such that the system's malfunctions may provoke emotional responses in the user; thus, the speakers' attitude towards the system may change over time. This change in attitude may have global consequences for the prosodic, lexical, and conversational properties of the speakers' utterances. For instance, the average pitch may rise, the local properties as the above may occur also when no irritation directly precedes the current utterance,

-560-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Human-Computer Interaction: Ergonomics and User Interfaces - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 1356

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.