the role of emotion in intelligence, leading to an imbalance where emotions are almost always ignored. We do not wish to see the scale tilted out of balance the other way, where machines twitch at every emotional expression or become overly emotional and utterly intolerable. However, we think research is needed to learn about how affect can be used in a balanced, respectful and intelligent way; this should be the practical aim of affective computing in HCI.
These support this brief overview of HCI-related work in affective computing at the MIT Media Lab; for our references to related research not conducted at the MIT Media Lab, please see the lists in these articles.
Fernandez, R. and Picard, R. W. ( 1997) "Signal Processing for Recognition of Human Frustration", Proc. IEEE ICASSP '98, Seattle, WA.
Healey, J., Dabek, F. and Picard, R. W. ( 1998). "A New Affect-Perceiving Interface and its Application to Personalized Music Selection", Proc. 1998 Workshop on Perceptual User Interfaces, San Fransisco, CA.
Healey, J. and Picard, R. W. ( 1998). "StartleCam: A Cybemetic Wearable Camera", Proc. Intl. Symp. on Wearable Computing, Pittsburgh, PA.
Healey, J., Seger, J., and Picard, R. W. ( 1999) "Quantifying Driver Stress: Developing a System for Collecting and Processing Bio-Metric Signals in Natural Situations", Proc. Rocky-Mt. Bio-Eng. Symp.. Boulder, CO.
Klein, J., Moon, Y, and Picard, R. W. ( 1999). "This Computer Responds to User Frustration". CHI 99, Pittsburgh, PA.
Marrin, T. and Picard, R. W. ( 1998). "Analysis of Affective Musical Expression with the Conductor's Jacket, Proc XII Col". Musical. Informatics, Gorizia, Italy.
Picard, R. W, and Healey, J., ( 1997). "Affective Wearables", Personal Technologies Vol 1, No. 4, 231-240.
Riseberg, J., Klein, J., Fernandez, R. and Picard, R. W. ( 1998). "Frustrating the User on Purpose: Using Biosignals in a Pilot Study to Detect the User's Emotional State", CHI '98, Los Angeles,CA.
Scheirer, J., Fernandez, R. and Picard, R. W. ( 1999). "Expression Glasses: A Wearable Device for Facial Expression Recognition", CHI '99, Pittsburgh,PA.
Vyzas, E., and Picard, R. W. ( 1999). "Online and Offline Recognition of Emotion Expression from Physiological Data, submitted to Workshop on Emotion-Based Agent Architectures", Int. Conf. on Autonomous Agents, Seattle, WA.