Celestine A. Ntuen and Eui H. Park The Institute for Human-Machine Studies, College of Engineering North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 USA
The forms in which information is presented to the decision maker (DM) has been a research topic of interest in Human Factors and Cognitive Science arena (see, e.g. Freedy & Johnson, 1982; MacGregor & Slovic, 1986; Wickens & Kramer, 1985, Jones, Wickens, & Deutsch, 1990). Significant part of these studies deal with how DMs make their decisions with computer graphics or intelligent decision aids ( Benbasat & Dexter, 1985; Desanctis, 1984; Dickinson, Desanctis & McBride, 1986). The basic measures used are decision accuracy, decision time, and the ability to predict effect of uncertainties ( Zachary, 1986). Other studies have attempted to measure cognitive effort and mental workload (Payne, Bettman, & Johnson, 1990; Todd & Benbasat, 1994), and meta-analysis of decision trade-off protocol ( Beach & Mitchel, 1978; Johnson, Payne, & Bettman, 1988). Most of these studies use business and economic data, and are often simplified with respect to data display rendering (dimensionality effect: 2D, versus 3D, etc.).
In the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) domain, one of the objectives of designing display and visualization aids is to enhance the human cognitive usability of the system. In general, a cognitive model is a dominant criterion in information display and visualization tools. This paper presents an experimental study conducted to assess the effects of information display and visualization on cognitive reasoning skills of the human operator. The domain application is a simulated, scaled-down version of tactical decision-making ( Ntuen, Chi & Park; Ntuen, Mountjoy & Yarbrough, 1998).
Cognitive reasoning was selected for the study because reasoning accuracy is known to generally correlate to the degree of correspondence between the decision task and decision maker's level of experience ( Hammond, Hamm, Grassia, & Pearson, 1987).