correct, then experts should out perform novices even in the situation where the task environment is restricted as in this second experiment.
These experiments demonstrate that the relationship between skill development in programming and working memory is not as predicted. It appears that experts rely significantly upon external sources to record code fragments as these are generated and then return later, in terms of the temporal sequence of program generation, to further elaborate these fragments. It has been suggested that a major determinant of expertise in programming may be related to the adoption or the development of strategies that facilitate the efficient use of external sources. The externalisation of information clearly has a high cost in terms of the reparsing or recomprehension of generated code that is implied. Hence, it might seem counterintuitive to suggest that problem solvers will tend to rely upon this kind of strategy rather than upon a strategy that involves the more extensive use of working memory. However, this explanation is consonant with existing work which has implicated display-based recognition skills in theoretical analyses of complex problem solving ( Larkin, 1989). The contribution of these analyses has been important, but they have neglected to consider the relationship between display use and expertise and the consequent effect that this may have upon the nature of problem solving strategies.
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