Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities

By James P. Lester; David W. Allen et al. | Go to book overview

Notes
1.
It should be noted that in Chapter 7, our city level analysis, we do employ an additive measure of total TRI releases. We made this conscious decision in order to determine if different measures of the dependent variable lead to different results.
2.
Each release component had extremely high values that were sequentially recoded at one integer higher than the highest break in the distribution. This technique reduces value magnitude yet preserves the difference ordering of cases; see Tabachnick and Fiddell ( 1998) for a justification of this procedure. Recoded measures were subjected to log transformations to normalize univariate distributions. A constant of 1 was added to all variables on each release component in order to eliminate zeros so that a log transformation could be employed. The recoded log transformed measures were subjected to principal components factor analysis. The factor loadings for the single unrotated factor were: stack air releases, .812; fugitive air releases, .812; water releases, .764; and land releases, .654. Eigenvalue: 2.33. The factor explained 58.3 percent of the variance in the pool of four variables.
3.
These two measures, which had the highest factor loadings on the global TRI release measure, both had significant outliers. The outliers were sequentially recoded at one integer higher than the highest break in their individual distributions. This technique reduced value magnitude yet preserved case-difference ordering. See Tabachnick and Fiddell ( 1998) for a justification of this technique. Recoded measures were subjected to log transformations to normalize univariate distributions. A constant of 1 was added to all values in order to eliminate zeros so that a log transformation could be employed.
4.
Missing data could not be coded as zero because of the nature of the reporting requirements for the Toxic Release Inventory. For example, no reports for a county does not mean no toxic releases in the county. It could mean that there were several firms with ten or fewer employees. These firms, regardless of toxic releases, are not required to file reports. Furthermore, larger firms that do not process or use the threshold amounts do not need to file reports. As such, absence of reports could reflect any level of toxic releases. Therefore, given the nature of the data source, the only viable option was to treat the cases as "missing data."
5.
There is some regional variation in missing data. The western region of the United States has the largest incidence of deleted counties because of no TRI reports. This is predominantly a function of counties within nine states in this region: Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. The north-central and Sunbelt regions are approximately tied in the incidence of missing TRI data. The north-central region's missing counties are predominantly a function of two states: Kansas and Nebraska. The Sunbelt region has five states with high percentages of counties with no TRI reports: Georgia, Kentucky, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. The Northeast evidences the smallest number of deleted counties. However, this figure is slightly misleading because of complete reports on all counties in two small states: Connecticut and Delaware. Within this region, three states do evidence high percentages of deleted counties: Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia. To account for this problem, the western region was used as the default category when the regional dummy variables were included in equations. The states with each region are:

-131-

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Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Dedications v
  • Contents vii
  • Figures and Tables ix
  • Preface and Acknowledgments xiii
  • 1 - Introduction the Nature of the Problem 1
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Environmental Injustice Research: Reviewing the Evidence 9
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Environmental Justice: Getting on the Public Agenda 21
  • Summary and Conclusions 51
  • Notes 52
  • 4 - Modeling Environmental Injustice: Concepts, Measures, Hypotheses, and Method of Analysis 57
  • Summary 73
  • Notes 74
  • 5 - Environmental Injustice in America's States 79
  • Notes 106
  • 6 - Environmental Injustice in America's Counties 113
  • Conclusion 129
  • Notes 131
  • 7 - Environmental Injustice in America's Cities 133
  • Conclusion 144
  • Notes 147
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusions from the Multilevel Analyses 149
  • Conclusion 156
  • Note 157
  • 9 - Existing Federal and State Policies for Environmental Justice: Problems and Prospects 159
  • Summary and Conclusion 171
  • Summary and Conclusion 171
  • 10 - Designing an Effective Policy for Environmental Justice: Implications and Recommendations 173
  • Conclusion 187
  • Notes 188
  • References 189
  • About the Authors 203
  • Index 205
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