Environmental Injustice in America's Cities
In Chapter 4, we outlined out explanatory concepts, their measures, the hypotheses we would test, and our method of analysis. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the environmental injustice thesis at the level of U.S. cities. We begin by articulating the environmental hazards we plan to study.
As noted in our county-level analysis, we have made a conscious decision to study toxic hazards at the substate level. The data from the TRI also allows us to focus on a specific finding from our state-level analysis as well. In the state-level analysis, we found a strong positive relationship between the percent black population in a state and the level of toxic waste present in a state. Similar findings were replicated in our county-level analysis. Furthermore, toxic waste has also been subjected to study in the literature ( Allen, 2001; Allen, Lester, and Hill, 1995; Bowen, et al., 1995; Burke, 1993; Cutter, 1994; Davies, 1972; Gould, 1986; Krieg, 1998; Lester, Allen, and Lauer, 1994; Lester and Allen, 1996; Polloch and Vittas, 1995; Ringquist, 1997). We abstracted four measures from the 1993 Toxic Release Inventory: total TRI released to the environment, TRI released through fugitive and stack air, and lead TRI released to air, land, and water.
The reader will notice different measures for total TRI releases between our county-level analysis in Chapter 6 and the measures employed in this chapter. We are using the additive total TRI Releases in U.S. cities in order to determine if different results occur if different measures of a dependent variable are employed. It should be noted that the additive version of total TRI releases is the most frequently employed measure in existing literature. Furthermore, in Chapter 6 we used data from the 1995 Toxic Release Inventory. Using 1993