Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities

By James P. Lester; David W. Allen et al. | Go to book overview

view existing policies in this area at the national and subnational levels. Chapter 10 will then offer several alternative policy designs for dealing with environmental injustice in the future.


Note
1.
As noted in Chapter 4, we are not entirely satisfied with our city-level measure of political mobilization, i.e., median value of owner-occupied housing. However, no other measure was readily available, and we did not want to run the risk of misspecifying the model. As a consequence, we were left with an indirect surrogate of the political-mobilization concept at the city level. The measure used is an indirect surrogate of the concept because the measure implies that the higher the value of owner-occupied housing, the greater the stake in the community and, therefore, the more likely a high level of political mobilization will eventuate. We justified the use of this measure on several grounds. First, median value of owner-occupied housing has been used to represent political mobilization in previous environmental injustice literature ( Hird, 1993, 1994; Hird and Reese, 1998; Lester and Allen, 1996). Second, a more direct measure of mobilization, i.e., local elections, was inadequate in that there is no agency that systematically collects local election results and, further, local elections are held at different times. Third, some city-level presidential election results are reported for different geographic entities, making comparable measures difficult. We would be troubled by the city-level political-mobilization results were it not for two points. First, the city-level results track nicely with the remaining findings about this concept for our other levels of analysis--levels at which the concept was more directly measured. Second, work by Hird ( 1993, 1994) and Hird and Reese ( 1998)-- which used the same measure for county-level environmental injustice analysis-- also reports no relationship between mobilization and environmental harms.

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Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Dedications v
  • Contents vii
  • Figures and Tables ix
  • Preface and Acknowledgments xiii
  • 1 - Introduction the Nature of the Problem 1
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Environmental Injustice Research: Reviewing the Evidence 9
  • Notes 18
  • 3 - Environmental Justice: Getting on the Public Agenda 21
  • Summary and Conclusions 51
  • Notes 52
  • 4 - Modeling Environmental Injustice: Concepts, Measures, Hypotheses, and Method of Analysis 57
  • Summary 73
  • Notes 74
  • 5 - Environmental Injustice in America's States 79
  • Notes 106
  • 6 - Environmental Injustice in America's Counties 113
  • Conclusion 129
  • Notes 131
  • 7 - Environmental Injustice in America's Cities 133
  • Conclusion 144
  • Notes 147
  • 8 - Summary and Conclusions from the Multilevel Analyses 149
  • Conclusion 156
  • Note 157
  • 9 - Existing Federal and State Policies for Environmental Justice: Problems and Prospects 159
  • Summary and Conclusion 171
  • Summary and Conclusion 171
  • 10 - Designing an Effective Policy for Environmental Justice: Implications and Recommendations 173
  • Conclusion 187
  • Notes 188
  • References 189
  • About the Authors 203
  • Index 205
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