Designing an Effective Policy for Environmental Justice: Implications and Recommendations
In this final chapter, we make use of the findings from the multilevel analysis to formulate an effective policy for environmental justice. However, simply using the statistical results in the absence of some overarching set of premises to assess any policy recommendation may lead to an erroneous policy design. In this chapter, we present a design for what we believe to be a rational, equitable, and efficient policy for dealing with environmental justice issues. First, we discuss the criteria by which we arrived at our policy proposal. We then develop detailed arguments. This complete picture is necessary because, as the late Aaron Wildavsky once remarked:
policy analysis must create problems that decision-makers are able to handle with the variables under their control and in the time available. Only by specifying a desired relationship between manipulable means and obtainable objectives can analysis make the essential distinction between a puzzle that can be solved definitively . . . and a problem for which there may not be a programmatic solution. ( Wildavsky, 1979: 16)
Traditionally, the primary focus of the policy analyst's work has been the generation of policy alternatives and options for consideration by decisionmakers ( Brewer and deLeon, 1983: 61). Policy analysis, then, refers to the determination of which of various alternative policies, decisions, or means are best for achieving a given set of goals in light of the relations between the alternative policies and the goals ( Dunn, 1994: 62; Nagel, 1984: 3).