The main American objective in the Far East during the Pacific war was the unconditional surrender of Japan within an over-all strategy of defeating Germany first.1 As a means to this end, the United States pursued a policy of keeping China in the war in order to make maximum use of her military potential and strategic geographical position in the common war effort. Linked with this policy was another which proved to have farreaching consequences: the policy of making China a great power and treating her as one of the Big Four for the purpose of building a postwar political order in the Far East. "Toward China we had two objectives," wrote Secretary of State Cordell Hull in his Memoirs: "The first was an effective joint prosecution of the war. The second was the recognition and building up of China as a major power entitled to equal rank with the three big Western Allies, Russia, Britain, and the United States, during and after the war, both for the preparation of a postwar organization and for the establishment of stability and prosperity in the Orient."2 Thus, unlike American wartime activities in Europe, the United States did have a polit-____________________
"The American Government's lone range policy with respect to China is based on the belief that the need for China to be a principal stabilizing factor in the Far East is a fundamental requirement for peace and security in that region" ( Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Hearings an the Institute of Pacific Relations, 82d Cong., 1st and 2d sess. [ 1951-52], p. 2839 [hereafter cited as Institute of Pacific Relations]).