Over the years this study has been aided by numerous Boltonians, colleagues from throughout the Americas, and students of history. Discussions with and the lectures of John Francis Bannon, S.J., provided a foundation for the project. Lawrence Kinnaird once asked why I did not focus on the developmental forces behind Bolton's concepts. At other times Lewis Hanke and, later, Silvio A Zavala provided the written support that pushed the project forward. Letters to Mary Callaghan, J. Manuel Espinosa, and Donald Worcester elicited timely, informative, and enthusiastic responses. In November 1992 I was able to meet with Dr. Espinosa in Washington, DC, and discuss Bolton and the concept at length. At the University of California, Berkeley, the following emeritus faculty -- Woodrow Borah, Henry May, Engel Sluiter, and Kenneth Stampp -- were extremely helpful. The late professors Raymond H. Fisher of the University of California at Los Angeles, Ursula Lamb of the University of Arizona, and Stephen Barnwell of Northern Michigan University provided me with personal insights. Richard Greenleaf at Tulane University was helpful in explaining the present state of his course on the subject. Bolton scholar Alberto Hurtado of Arizona State University provided direction to the study. Gerald Cardoso of Washington, DC, served as a translator of Brazilian documents. Ambler H. Moss, Jr., director of the North-South Center, University of Miami, provided useful information on the Center.
Professors Felipe Castro and Elias Margolis Schweber of the National Autonomous University of Mexico; Rita Maria Lino of Mackenzie University, São Paulo, Brazil; Luis Celis Muñoz of the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile, Santiago; Augusto Montenegro González and Rosa Elena Gómez Hurtado of the Pontifical Javerian University in Bogotá, Colombia; Nikita L. Harwich of Andrés Bello Catholic University, Caracas, Ven-