Reforming Federal Cops
The strong man must at all times be alert to the attack of insidious disease.1
The Framers of the Constitution intended that the chief executive supervise federal law enforcement and judicial nominations. The administrative structure for carrying out this intention, however, was not well defined. Criminal jurisdiction of the federal courts required special acts of the First Congress.2 Following the Civil War, federal police, court, and prison functions expanded in number and procedural intricacy. Over the next sixty years, the federal government employed a small force of marshals, investigators, intelligence agents, judges, and prison guards. Federal jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters had indeed expanded. Along the way, presidents and congresses failed to plan a cohesive justice system. States jealously guarded authority over internal criminal affairs. By 1870, criminal legislation stressed federal policing over judicial or prison functions, reflecting new social forces, such as urbanization, criminal markets, criminal inventiveness, and population mobility.
Expanded federal intervention in crime control obligated presidents from Grant to Coolidge to enlarge law enforcement agencies, clarify agency jurisdiction and tasks, hire personnel, relocate centers of operation, and install formal procedures. By contrast with earlier presidents, Herbert Hoover used his inaugural address to acknowledge executive responsibility to reorganize and improve