develop a protocol concerning pollution from land-based activities. It discussed a Proposed First Draft of the Protocol prepared by he Secretariat and agreed on what should be the main elements of the protocol. The heavily bracketed text emerging from that meeting is reproduced in UNEP (OCA)/CAR WG.20/4. A regional meeting to negotiate the revised first draft Protocol was scheduled for February 1997.
In Decision CM9/7, the Ninth Meeting of the Council of Ministers of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment approved the Regional Programme of Action. The Programme of Action serves to implement both the 1990 Kuwait Protocol for the Protection of the Marine Environment against Pollution from Land-Based Sources (a Protocol to the 1978 Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution) and the 1995 Global Programme of Action.
The main projects envisaged by the Regional Programme are (1) the updating of the surveys of source categories of land-based activities and their impacts, capabilities, and constraints in the region; (2) development of criteria, guidelines, and standards for the management of land-based activities; (3) preparation of a river basin management programme; and (4) a pilot study on POPs.
In a separate Decision CM9/3, the Meeting of the Council of Ministers adopted a number of other proposals related to the implementation of the 1990 Protocol, including the convening of training seminars and the preparation of a manual for the implementation of the protocol.
1996 began with substantial oil spills in environmentally sensitive sea areas in the United Kingdom from the Sea Empress and in the United States from a barge. The United Kingdom prepared a bill that was heavily influenced by the disaster and, in the United States, the final natural resource damage assessment regulations required by the Oil Pollution Act were published. At the international level, amendments to existing conventions and the 1989 Salvage Convention entered into force, and the (→) Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in Connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea (HNS Convention) was adopted. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) continued to discuss issues relat-