used in the inspection process. Finally, Oxford University Press published for the ADB Small Countries, Big Lessons: Governance and the Rise of East Asia by Hilton Root, an ADB consultant. This book distills analysis emerging from a series of in-country investigations in Malaysia and the Philippines as well as a Governance and Development Workshop held at ADB Headquarters in April 1995.
The ADB continued work on draft policy papers on Cooperation with NGOs and on Indigenous Peoples in Development. In addition to internal review and consultation with governments, the ADB undertook extensive consultations with NGOs and community-based organizations with respect to these two policy papers. In addition to consultation through international correspondence, the ADB mounted specific consultation missions to 10 countries in Asia.
John A. Boyd
To reflect operational experience and further enhance its mandate, revisions to the Bank's Environmental Policy and Procedures were approved by the Board in September 1996. That revision included the incorporation of a number of new elements in the Bank's environmental appraisal process. For example, initial environmental examinations will now be required before formally screening projects, if inadequate information is available on an operation to determine, for example, if an A-level environmental impact assessment or B-level environmental analysis is required. Additionally, environmental action plans are now to be part of the EBRD's formal Environmental Procedures, while "environmental additionality"--the EBRD's commitment to promote environmental objectives--will enhance energy and resource efficiency, waste recovery and recycling, and the use of clean technologies. Environmental components will also be integrated into country and sector strategies.
EBRD operations will now be structured to meet national and existing European Union (EU) environmental standards, whichever are the more stringent, or national and World Bank standards where EU standards do not exist. If these standards cannot be met at the time of Board approval, operations will include a programme for achieving compliance with them. When alternative approaches are required by an operation, as may be expected at the present time for most financial intermediaries, such approaches will in all cases be subject to Board consideration on a project-by-project basis.