Menstrual disorder technologies are surgical, conceptual, and pharmaceutical techniques and tools used to diagnose and treat menstrual disorders. Common disorders include amenorrhea (an absence of menstruation); dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation); premenstrual syndrome (PMS); and abnormal, dysfunctional, or excessive uterine bleeding. Also included are those technologies used to treat gynecological diseases associated with menstrual disorders, such as endometriosis, which is often accompanied by dysmenorrhea and excessive uterine bleeding. There are many menstrual disorder technologies. The ones discussed here are most often used in the treatment and diagnosis of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis.
A surgical procedure called a laparoscopy must be performed to diagnose definitively the cause of many menstrual disorders. The patient is given a general anesthetic, and a small incision is made, usually just below the patient's navel. A needle is inserted through the incision, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped through the needle into the patient's abdomen to distend it. The needle is removed and replaced with a laparoscope, a thin tube with a light source at one end and a telescopic eyepiece at the other. The surgeon is now able to view the patient's pelvic organs through the