The Fertility Transition in Latin America

By José Miguel Guzmán; Susheela Singh et al. | Go to book overview
profile of their first clientele was that of an urban woman, in her late twenties or older, whose family size exceeded her family ideals, and whose fertility was completed. The medical profession had a leading role in the study of issues surrounding reproduction--particularly the incidence and reasons for induced abortion in societies where the practice is illegal--and, on the basis of this research, it advocated the need for contraceptive services. At first, they were often small scale, urban-based, and semi-experimental in nature, serving a population where the latent demand for contraception was high. Their initial success, the subsequent support received from external funding sources, and the general world atmosphere of crisis surrounding the population issue provided an environment propitious for their rapid expansion.What emerges in the 1980s is a situation where family planning services are widely available through a mix of private and public service programmes as well as through commercial channels, particularly pharmacies, which supply contraceptives to a large proportion of users. Most Latin American countries have, by 1990, completed the main phases of their fertility transitions and achieved substantial birth-rate reductions. Contraception is nearly universally accepted and widely practised by couples everywhere. The main differences are in the mix of supply sources, the relative effect of private v. public programme performance, and, generally, the degree of articulation between family planning programmes and public policy.
References
Armijo, R., and Monreal, T. ( 1965), "'The Problem of Induced Abortion in Chile'", in C. V Kiser (ed.), 'Components of Population Change in Latin America', Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 43/ 4(2): 263-72.
Balán, J., and Ramos, S. ( 1989), "'La Medicalización del Comportamiento Reproductivo: Un Estudio Exploratorio sobre la Demanda de Anticonceptivos en los Sectores Populares'", Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios de Estado y Sociedad, CEDES (Unpublished).
Bongaarts, J., Mauldin, W. P., and Phillips, J. F. ( 1990), "'The Demographic Impact of Family Planning Programs'", Studies in Family Planning, 21/6: 299-310.
Caldwell, J. C. ( 1982), Theory of Fertility Decline ( London: Academic Press).
Coale, A., and Hoover, E. M. ( 1958), Population Growth and Economic Development in Low Income Countries ( Princeton: Princeton University Press).
Colombia, Corporación Centro Regional de Población ( 1988), Segunda Encuesta Nacional de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticoncepción, 1980 ( Bogotá).
Delgado-Garcia, R. ( 1966), "'Perspectives of Family Planning Programs'" in J. M. Stycos and J. Arias (eds.), Population Dilemma in Latin America ( Washington: Potomac Books).
Dominican Republic, Consejo Nacional de Población y Familia ( 1987), Encuesta Demográfica de Salud: DHS-86 ( Santo Domingo: Alfa & Omega).
Ecuador, Centro de Estudios de Población y Paternidad Responsable ( 1988), Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud Familiar 1987 ( Quito: Ediciones Culturales UNP, SA).
Garcáa, M. L., and Carvajal, J. ( 1979), "'Efectos de los Programas de Planificación de laFamilia en el Desarrollo de los Países de Centro América y Panamá"

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