with the "politicization of think tanks." 70 Instead, the invention of think tanks in the Progressive Era, which signaled the fully conscious entrance of business interests into the political realm, was itself the turn to advocacy. The incorporation of expertise into public administration may take different forms in different historical eras, but the fundamental structure (so far) has tended to remain the same: Political authority is arranged in ways that largely (though not entirely) benefit elites by promoting the idea of "America" as a safe system for international economic development. With the end of the Cold War, policy planning organizations have groped for new frameworks within which to understand and manage global processes. U.S. President Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair have each tried to develop a set of ideas within their respective think tanks under the heading of "third way" politics. This phenomenon is in many ways a fitting culmination of corporate liberalism -- at once a last ditch effort to keep pro-statist principles alive, and a capitulation to the New Right free-marketeers of the 1970s.
My thanks to Carol Stabile, Paul Bove, John Lyne, and the graduate students and professors of the Rhetoric and Communication Department, and the Program for Cultural Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. Thanks also to Dilip Gaonkar, Larry Grossberg, Joe Wenzel, Tom Conley, John Nerone, and Barbara O'Keefe, who helped me during my master's studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This chapter is dedicated to Grandma and Grandad.