Latin America in the World Economy: Mercantile Colonialism to Global Capitalism

By Frederick Stirton Weaver | Go to book overview

and the expansion of TNCs -- Modern Times' unique form of imperialism -- was one of the major components of those new circumstances.


Notes
1.
See Chandler ( 1977: 240-376), Nutter and Einhorn ( 1969: 132), Rosenberg ( 1963), Roy ( 1997), Strom ( 1992), Vatter ( 1967), and Wolman ( 1924: 110-118) for the economic and political transitions in the late-nineteenth-century.
2.
I use the term "Modern Times" for the mass production-mass consumption social formation rather than Fordism (adopted from Gramsci [ 1931] by the Regulation school), Postwar Social Structure of Accumulation, Monopoly Capitalism, Late Capitalism, Embedded Liberalism, Welfare Capitalism, or other possibilities. Modern Times is the title of Charlie Chaplin's classic 1936 movie about working on an assembly line, and the name evokes the entire era of modernity.
3.
See Jacoby ( 1991) for U.S. industrialists' exceptional antagonism toward unions, and C. Gordon ( 1994: 87-127) for the advantages some managers and owners saw in conservative unionization.
4.
Kindleberger ( 1973), C. Gordon ( 1994), and Bernstein ( 1987) are good and mostly complementary sources and bibliographies on different aspects of the U.S. economy during the 1920s and 1930s.
5.
In describing the key features of Modern Times, the closely related approaches by the European Regulation School (see Aglietta, 1979; Boyer, 1990; Lipietz, 1986; Jessop, 1990) and the U.S. Social Structures of Accumulation (SSA) approach (see Bowles, Gordon, and Weisskopf, 1983, 1990; Kotz, McDonough, and Reich, 1994) are especially suggestive. Although there are differences between and within these analyses ( Brenner and Glick, 1991; Jessop, 1990; Kotz, 1994a, 1994b), they present a picture generally consistent with what I have clubbed Modern Times.

I ignore SSA theorists' attention to the Kondratieff cycle -- fifty-year or so swings in economic activity. The very existence of such cycles is debatable ( Solomau, 1990), and I am uneasy about what seems to be an clement of natural law in this formulation. My historical phases of Competitive and Finance Capitalism are different from but not incompatible with those of SSA and Regulation scholars.

6.
The central place of modern consumer goods to the economy as a whole is underscored by looking at the 1967 input-output table. For one important example, firms producing modern consumer goods accounted for two-thirds of the demand for primary metals and metal products ("direct and indirect requirements" of categories 37, 38 and 39) in that year, and even a casual perusal of the input-output table will show the significant proportions of virtually all sectors' production derived from consumers' and governments' demand for modern consumer goods ( Survey, 1974: 38-43, 50-55).
7.
These positions were practically monopolized by men ( Milkman, 1987; Gabin, 1985), although clerical work was a major exception. Strom ( 1992) is an excellent study of the early-twentieth-century routinization of clerical work along Taylorist lines, in which (usually white) women predominated in a society-wide gendered division of labor that pervaded all employment, whether private or public, Core or Competitive.

-114-

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