Academia in Upheaval: Origins, Transfers, and Transformations of the Communist Academic Regime in Russia and East Central Europe

By Michael David-Fox; György Péteri | Go to book overview

students. Yet they fell far behind their Czech and East German comrades in positioning supporters at universities. This failing derived to a large extent from the differing constitution of Polish political culture, which made the tasks of a Soviet-installed Marxist-Leninist Party more challenging than elsewhere. 117

Though Stalinist Eastern Europe undoubtedly constituted a single political context, each national system retained its integrity in unexpected ways; if East European higher education became socialist in form, it remained national in content. Only future research can show to what extent this conclusion about the sovietization of higher education in the Czech lands, East Germany, and Poland can be applied to others areas of social life.


NOTES

Research for this chapter was supported by the Spencer Foundation, the German Marshall Fund, the Committee on Research of the University of California at Berkeley, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Fulbright Commission, the Krupp Foundation at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University, the Sheldon Foundation at Harvard University, and the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), which provided assistance with funds from the NEH, the USIA, and the State Department, which administers the Title VIII Program. The author would like to thank Michael David-Fox, Eduard Mühle, and György Péteri for helpful comments.

1.
Joseph Rothschild, Return to Diversity: A Political History of East Central Europe Since World War II ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1993),145.
2.
An exception is Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995).
3.
Reference is occasionally made to " Czechoslovakia" when experience was identical in Slovakia and the Czech lands. Within Czechoslovakia there were separate educational administrations in Prague and Bratislava in the period discussed.
4.
This outline of a Soviet-type higher-education system was formulated in a slightly different order by Russian historian Andrej Nikitin. See "Die sowjetische Militäradministration und die Sowjetisierung des Bildungssystems in Ostdeutschland 1945-1949," Bildung und Erziehung 45, no. 4 ( 1992): 405-416.
5.
The Czech Communist daily Rudé právo wrote on May 25, 1952, that "Love of the Soviet Union does not tolerate the slightest reservation. The road into the morass of treason begins on the inclined plane of reservations and doubts regarding the correctness of the policy of the Soviet Union." Cited in Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Soviet Bloc: Unity and Conflict, rev. ed. ( Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1967), 67.

-165-

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