students. Yet they fell far behind their Czech and East German comrades in positioning supporters at universities. This failing derived to a large extent from the differing constitution of Polish political culture, which made the tasks of a Soviet-installed Marxist-Leninist Party more challenging than elsewhere. 117
Though Stalinist Eastern Europe undoubtedly constituted a single political context, each national system retained its integrity in unexpected ways; if East European higher education became socialist in form, it remained national in content. Only future research can show to what extent this conclusion about the sovietization of higher education in the Czech lands, East Germany, and Poland can be applied to others areas of social life.
Research for this chapter was supported by the Spencer Foundation, the German Marshall Fund, the Committee on Research of the University of California at Berkeley, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Fulbright Commission, the Krupp Foundation at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University, the Sheldon Foundation at Harvard University, and the International Research and Exchanges Board (IREX), which provided assistance with funds from the NEH, the USIA, and the State Department, which administers the Title VIII Program. The author would like to thank Michael David-Fox, Eduard Mühle, and György Péteri for helpful comments.