Lysenkoism in Europe: Export-Import of the Soviet Model
The profound influence of the Cold War on science has been the subject of numerous historical studies. Scholars have thoroughly analyzed the impact of the Cold War on structural and intellectual dynamics of science in various countries, exploring the changes it produced in funding, institutions, personnel, and disciplinary agendas. Many historians have paid considerable attention to scientific competition between the two great blocs of East and West, and effects of this competition upon scientific development in both camps. The interrelations among the scientific communities within these blocs, however, have attracted much less attention. How did the Cold War affect the interchange of ideas, structures, and practices between the blocs and among the countries of each bloc? What political, economic, institutional, and cultural factors were involved, and to what extent? Was the scientific development in various countries within each bloc uniform, and, if so, why?
In this chapter, I examine one suggestive example: the expansion of so-called Michurinist biology that was created in the Soviet Union and spread to the "socialist camp" during the first years of the Cold War through various routes and mechanisms. This process has often been perceived as the "hand of Moscow"--a unilateral "export" of Michurinist doctrine forced by the Soviet authorities upon their satellites. One may suppose, however, that such an enforced export might well have been supplemented by the deliberate "import" of Michurinism by agriculturists, biologists, and politicians