Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools

By Laura Randall; Joan B. Anderson | Go to book overview

Recommendations for State Policies on Education

The quality of state intervention depends on the quality of democracy, and this, in turn, depends on the effectiveness of accountability by which the governments are forced to justify their acts to the population ( Przeworski 1995). The question of greater inclusion is how to make the state a real instrument for serving common objectives ( Sartori 1991).

The state should coordinate decentralization, so that it does not reinforce inequalities; it should develop shares with the various institutions of civil society, calling on them to carry out their social functions; decentralize without corporatization for greater participation of special interests and solidarity groups, conditions essential for the promotion of the collective good of education; adopt modern systems of social protection, with responsible bureaucracies. It is clear that the means of decentralizing education should be distinct and adapted to the needs of the country, considering the regional distribution of income and wealth. Where resources are much greater, the teachers are much better trained and have much better material conditions.

There is no way of postponing the question of salary policy in the educational field. The consequences of extremely low teacher salaries is profound. The salary scales and promotion rules for teachers should be made equal to those of other professionals, such as those of the Judiciary, for example, whose incentives are progressive, including the promise of working in distant locations and, little by little, moving closer to these professionals' place of origin.

Greater sensitivity is needed for the implementation of teachers' training programs, especially for teachers from the lowest socioeconomic segments. In the municipalities of subregions, especially those of strong local power, the government should break with conservative structures, understanding that their elites are not interested in educating the masses. The educational bureaucracies in these municipalities should be transformed in order to serve their respective populations.

Educational policies should center themselves on mechanisms of institutional innovation for a new political pact in the field of education, giving rise to new forms of management that take account of its role in the social area of education, establishing conditions for the implementation of changes whose necessity already is too well known. The role of the state in education is that of active agent in the implementation of institutional mechanisms, intervening effectively in redistribution. It is in this sense that social policy cannot be delayed, with the responsibility of bringing to effective citizenship the thousands of individuals excluded from basic social rights. Finally, the essential role of the state is to prepare the individual for citizenship and for democracy.


Note
1.
One reason for the pauperization of primary school teachers in Brazil was that there was an expansion of the unionization of teachers at the middle and high school levels, with effective political organization. This did not happen in the same way for primary

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Schooling for Success: Preventing Repetition and Dropout in Latin American Primary Schools
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Tables and Graphs ix
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Part I - Introduction and Overview 1
  • References 22
  • Notes 31
  • References 31
  • References 42
  • Note 50
  • General References 51
  • References 59
  • Part II - Basic Education Systems 61
  • Notes 73
  • General Bibliography 73
  • Notes 87
  • References 101
  • Notes 116
  • References 117
  • Part III - Repetition and Dropout: Measurement and Programs 119
  • Note 140
  • References 140
  • Notes 150
  • References 150
  • Notes 161
  • References 161
  • Bibliography 174
  • Part IV - Decentralization 177
  • Bibliography 199
  • General References 209
  • Notes 225
  • General References 226
  • Part V - Curriculum 227
  • Bibliography 244
  • Bibliography 255
  • Part VI - Teaching Conditions: Training and Salaries 263
  • Notes 275
  • References 275
  • General References 289
  • Note 299
  • General References 300
  • Notes 307
  • Biblography 307
  • Part VII - Conclusion 309
  • About the Editors and Contributors 317
  • Index 325
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