The rates of participation are estimated as follows: of the population in the age
group relevant to the level, it is determined if the level was completed or if it is currently
attended (this defines the column "studying," and corresponds to the traditional estimation
of rates of participation). The column labeled "not studying" refers to the population in
the age group who completed the previous level, but are not studying now. In addition, the
population in the relevant group that did not complete the preceding level is identified as
an estimation that is not often made, but that in our opinion defines a very important
dimension of educational backwardness.
A more precise calculation of these rates of exclusion from primary education
should include the relative correction of the difference between the date of the census
survey and the beginning of the school year, given that the rule of SEP indicates that only
children who are at least six years old can enroll. The rates in the seven to twelve year
group decrease, but continue the trends shown here. It was decided, however, to maintain
the calculation based on the conventional national and international age groups.
Post-basic education shows even lower levels of distribution in the country and
maintains the tendencies of regional differences shown for basic education. Only in the
capital are more than half of young people attending higher middle school and around
one-quarter receiving higher education, in relation to the respective age groups of between
sixteen and nineteen years and between twenty and twenty-four. For a more extensive
discussion of this result, see Bracho ( 1998).
Currently SEP is developing tests of educational achievement and competencies.
It is known that there are achievement tests used by SEP (see the results reported in Palafox et al. 1994), as well as others that are applied to evaluating the achievement of
teachers -- Carrera Magisterial -- however, they are not available to researchers and are
only accessible to those involved in educational planning.
Currently, SEP estimates terminal efficiency, taking as a base only the enrollment
of new entry to first grade (that is, without taking into account for the calculation those
individuals that repeat the grade), with which the estimation of terminal efficiency reaches
80 percent for this cycle. Table 10.3
In addition, information disaggregated to the state level can be problematic, as is
shown in a recent study on educational financing within a federalist framework ( Latapi
and Ulloa 1997).
The study by Lustig ( 1991) is an excellent source for analyzing the economic
restructuring during the decade of the 1980s and its impact on financing social needs. For
a reference specifically on the impact on the educational system, see Padua ( 1994).
Bracho, Teresa. 1995. "Gasto privado en educación. México 1984-1992." Revista
Mexicana de Sociologia 57, no. 2 (April-June).
-----. 1995. "Distribución y desigualdad educativa. en México." Estudios Sociologicos 13, no. 37.
-----. 1997. "La exlusión de la educación bisica. Decisiones familiares sobre
escolarización." Working Paper, CIDE. Centro de Investigacion y Docencia
-----. 1998. "México desde la perspectiva regional. Perfil educativo de sus adultos y
tendencias de escolarización de sus niños." Working Paper, no. 68 CIDE.
Bracho, Teresa, and
Andrés Zamudio. 1994. "Los redimientos económicos de la escolaridad en México, 1989." Economia Mexicana 3, no. 2.
-----. 1997. "El gasto familiar en educación. México 1992." Revista Mexicana de
Investigación Educativa 2, no. 4, segundo semestre.