Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis

By David Birdsong | Go to book overview

concomitant improvement in their perception of the L2 contrasts in the absence of perceptual training.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported by grants DC00257 and DC02892 from the National Institute for Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders. I thank the following individuals for their important contribution to work presented here: Elaina Frieda, Hua Liu, Diane Meador, Ian R. A. MacKay, Murray J. Munro, Takeshi Nozawa, and Grace Yeni- Komshian.


REFERENCES

Anisfeld, M., Anisfeld, E., & Semogas, R. ( 1969). Cross-influences between the phonological systems of Lithuanian-English bilinguals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 257-261.

Best, C. ( 1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 171-206). Timonium, MD: York Press.

Bever, T. ( 1981). Normal acquisition processes explain the critical period for language learning. In K. Diller (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude (pp. 176- 198). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Bongaerts, T., Planken, B., & Schils, E. ( 1995). Can late learners attain a native accent in a foreign language? A test of the critical period hypothesis. In D. Singleton & Z. Lengyel (Eds.), The age factor in second language acquisition (pp. 30-50). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Bradlow, A., Pisoni, D., Yamada, R., & Tohkura, Y. ( 1996). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /1/: IV. Some effects of perceptual learning on speech production. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101, 2299-2310.

Churchland, P. ( 1986). Neurophilosophy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Cook, V. ( 1995). Multicompetence and effects of age. In D. Singleton & Z. Lengyel (Eds.), The age factor in second language acquisition (pp. 51-66). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.

Cutler, A., Mehler, J., Norris, D., & Segui, J. ( 1989). Limits on bilingualism. Nature, 340, 229-230.

Dunkel, H. ( 1948). Second language learning. Boston: Ginn & Company.

Edelman, G. ( 1989). The remembered present: A biological theory of consciousness. New York: Basic Books.

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