SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT AND PERSONNEL ADMINISTRATION
INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY AND HUMAN WELFARE
1. Nature of Scientific Management . -- Scientific management is an attempt to apply the scientific method to industry. The Industrial Revolution is generally understood to include those great mechanical inventions which began in the closing years of the eighteenth century and which were accompanied by the introduction of the factory system. The modern movement of scientific management has sometimes been interpreted as a second phase of the Industrial Revolution. It represents a further advance in technology, that is, in the application of science to the problems of economic production.
Scientific management seeks to discover by the process of experimentation what method of doing a particular piece of work is the most efficient, that is, which yields the maximum of production with the minimum of effort. It seeks to test the results of traditional methods of production and to eliminate guess work or the "rule of thumb." After the most satisfactory methods are determined, industrial processes and even human activities themselves are standardized in accordance with these findings.
2. Pioneer Time and Motion Studies . -- The great pioneer in scientific management was Frederick Taylor who may justly be given the title of the first efficiency engineer. He became interested in the subject because of his belief in the universal tendency of workmen under the modern conditions to shirk or "to soldier on the job." Taylor ascribed this tendency to ignorance on the part of both employers and employees as to what constituted a fair day's work. He sought to determine this standard in concrete cases by the process of scientific experimentation.
In order to secure a fair day's work with maximum production, it was found necessary to study, to improve, and to standardize industrial processes. It was no longer possible to leave to the workman the details of how he should work. Taylor's famous time and motion studies led him to the conclusion that many laboring operations were far from efficient. Scientific management discovered that the laying of bricks, for illustration, was not done in the most efficient manner. The various motions of bricklaying were, therefore, carefully studied and standardized into what seemed the most efficient manner. The skilled bricklayer was