CHAPTER II
CONCEPTIONS OF PROPAGANDA

We have briefly pointed out the tremendous and many-sided enterprise of promoting, advancing, or pushing culture upon and into the uncultured and the miscultured -- assuming the standpoint of any given promoter. We have also pointed out the most inclusive forms of this promotion. We have given some special attention to the newer educational ideal, mainly for purposes of contrast. The better education and propaganda stand apart and opposed. In so far as either predominates in the work of culture-promotion, it nullifies the other. To the present writer education and propaganda are contradictions in terms and mutually exclusive. Some students of propaganda, as we shall soon see, assume that there is "good" propaganda and "bad" propaganda, speaking in rather colloquial terms. As propaganda is here conceived there is no such thing as "good" propaganda, and whatever promotional work has passed and now passes under that name had better be called something else in the interests of clear thinking.

These observations lead us, however, to an examination of the nature and chief features of this form of promotion and, quite logically, it is necessary first of all to assemble and review the various definitions. What do students of the subject think propaganda is? How do they conceive and describe what they see? By locating propaganda within the class of phenomena which we have called culture-promotion we have already made the first step in definition. But now we must carry the analysis further.


CURRENT DEFINITIONS

"The more useful sense of the term," says Dunlap, "is in its designation of every deliberate attempt to influence the opinion

-21-

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