CHAPTER IX*
PROPAGANDA AND WAR

So far as we can see there are only two possible types of relations, speaking broadly, between tribes and nations-peace and war. And these two types are mutually exclusive; they alternate but never coincide. The peaceful methods by which tribes and nations influence one another are known as negotiation. Negotiation may include much propaganda of the sort defined in this book, and those who are strong for the establishment and maintenance of peaceful relations may use propaganda-pernicious propaganda. Peace promotion, however, is apt to be less "interested" than war propaganda because there is less private gain involved. Peace workers do not usually disguise themselves extensively, but questionable methods are probably used all the time, and the content consists of conclusions which are very difficult to verify. The grand proposition of the peace workers is that peace conditions are better than war conditions, but how this can be ultimately shown is impossible to say as yet; it is very easy here to make assumptions which are the product of wishes and not reason.

The other possible relation between tribes and nations is war. It is unnecessary, probably, to take any space at this point to define what we mean by war. In earlier times military pressure was about the only device available when negotiations had broken down. But in modern times there are at least three ways of dealing with enemy states when negotiation is out of the picture.

____________________
*
Most of the material in this chapter is taken from or suggested by that excellent work Propaganda Technique in the World War, by H. K. Lasswell. My debt is hereby acknowledged. See a review of it in The New Republic, November 30, 1927, p. 49.

-218-

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