CHAPTER XII
PROPAGANDA AND EDUCATION

Among those who are most competent to have an opinion, namely, psychologists and cultural anthropologists, it is now widely believed that the darling babies of our bosoms are destitute of hereditary predispositions which would determine them to favor and inevitably reproduce the cherished cultural patterns of the time and place. Chinese babies are not born with an innate drive to eat with chop sticks; German babies are not "naturally" pred isposed to sing Wagnerian operas; American babies have no hereditary inclination to worship the Stars and Stripes; there is nothing in the elemental make-up of Italian babies that would make them cry for spaghetti. Thus, each new-born baby is an alien, the remotest of all aliens, as far as the culture patterns of the time and place are concerned. It is clear, however, that the baby cannot be allowed to remain an alien.

Where the culture patterns are rather few in number and comparatively homogeneous, as among small and isolated tribes, tendencies to imitate help the youngster from strangeness to at-homeness; a little positive inculcation supplements imitation and completes the work. But where the culture is rich, various, and contradictory, as among conquered and amalgamated modern, that is to say, cross-fertilized peoples, the imitative propensities are baffled and inculcation, of necessity, stands up more prominently. If there are more than two hundred different religious patterns, as in the United States, what can imitation do? The point is that "education" cannot be neglected -- if these religious people really believe that they have "the way of salvation."

Where the culture patterns are numerous and various, many and contradictory, as in any modern society, fierce contentions arise as to who may do the inculcating and what must be inculcated. They arise because the mature people are devotees of

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