Researchingand writing this book would have been impossible without help from a large number of institutions and colleagues. My search for unpublished archival documents took me to archives in three countries -- the United States, Germany, and Austria -- and I am grateful to the staffs of all these archives, who were particularly friendly and supportive. My thanks go to Kurt Hacker and Helmut Fiereder of the Archiv und Museum Mauthausen, Vienna; Lorenz Mikoletzky, director of the Allgemeines Verwaltungsarchiv, Vienna; Hans J. Reichhardt, former director of the Landesarchiv Berlin; Franz-Josef Heyen, director of the Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz; Dianne Spielmann, archivist of the Leo Baeck Institute, New York; Maria Keipert, director of the Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes, Bonn; Marek Web, archivist of the Yivo Institute for Jewish Research, New York; and two archives who mailed items I needed: Staatsarchiv Sigmaringen and Hauptstaatsarchiv Düsseldorf.
I am particularly grateful to those archives whose impressive holdings on my subject provided the bulk of my archival sources: the Berlin Document Center, especially Daniel Simon and David Marwell, former directors, and Werner Pix for granting access to the BDC's vast personnel records collection and answering my many follow-up requests; the Bundesarchiv in Koblenz and the Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv in Freiburg, particularly Friedrich Kahlenberg, director, and archivists Elisabeth Kindler, Josef Henke, and Hans-Dieter Kreikamp; Herbert Steiner, former director, Wolfgang Neugebauer, director, and Elisabeth Klamper, archivist, of the Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, Vienna, for providing both archival and trial records; Wolf-Arno Kropat, director and Klaus Eiler, archivist, of the Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv, Wiesbaden, for guidance through the records on the Hadamar and Eichberg trials; Paul Sauer, director of the Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, for finding, preserving, and opening the rare collection of documents on the euthanasia killings in Württemberg, including the fate of Jewish patients; the late John Mendelsohn and George Wagner of the National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives Building, Washington, D.C., for guiding me through the Nuremberg records; and Richard Boylan of the National Archives and Records Administration, Suitland ( Maryland) Records Branch, for finding long-lost. records. I would also like to thank the staff of the Law Library at Columbia University, who made their transcript of the Nuremberg Medical Case available.