Recent Experiments in Psychology

By Leland W. Crafts; Theodore C. Schneirla et al. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER XV
THE CONDITIONING OF VASOMOTOR RESPONSES

INTRODUCTION

When attention is called to some social lapse and a blush comes to the cheek of the indiscreet person, people ordinarily say, "Oh, he is embarrassed," and accept that as an explanation of the blushing. It is obvious that calling attention to the faux pas has somehow caused the blush, yet why should this particular effect have been produced rather than some other? The special problem of the present chapter concerns the manner in which such reactions come under the control of particular kinds of stimuli and become established as significant aspects of an individual's behavior.

Blushing or paling of the facial skin is called an "involuntary" response, since most people cannot say or think, "I will cause my cheeks to blush" (or to pale) and directly bring about the reaction. In contrast, after some training early in life, the individual can say or think, "I will move my finger," and thereupon produce that movement. The latter response is called a "voluntary" reaction because it can be regularly produced by the thought of making it. However, one cannot classify responses as being intrinsically either voluntary or involuntary. The term "involuntary action" is typically applied to responses which are not usually subject to control by words or thoughts or by any other stimulation which the individual can produce at will." But it is possible that almost any such response can be made subject to this voluntary control if the person has had the appropriate combination of experiences or the right kind of training. For instance, only the exceptional individual can think, "I will move my ear," and directly do so. But through appropriate training, a number of subjects in an experiment by Bair1 learned to make that response a

____________________
1

Bair J. H. The Practice Curve. Psychological Review Monograph Supplements, 1903, No. 19.

-264-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Recent Experiments in Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 512

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.