The final part of the retention section dealt with the mechanisms involved in the retention of movement information. At issue here was the type of movement information used by the central nervous system in reproduction tasks. The primary questions concerned the type of movement information that was encoded, the receptors and effectors involved, and the manner in which movement information is stored. The results discussed did not provide complete answers, but they did suggest the importance of certain types of cues, receptors, and effectors. Unfortunately, the current state of the art does not provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms that underlie movement representation. Thus, a major challenge facing students of motor behavior lies in elucidating the manner in which central and peripheral processes interact to guide movement.
The present discussions have been undertaken with the conviction that students can be introduced to the areas of motor learning and memory through a systematic simplification of essential theoretical constructs and supporting data. Consequently, many nuances, details, and qualifications have been left out. Despite the attempt at simplification, an effort has been made to provide students with an image of the vitality, controversy, and excitement in these research areas. Let the student of motor behavior be warned that as in any area of active scientific research the major issues in motor learning and memory research are rapidly changing; what is known today may be modified tomorrow.
Appreciation and a sincere thanks is extended to Virginia Diggles for her editorial assistance in preparing this chapter.
Adams J. A. "Issues for a closed-loop theory of motor learning". In G. E. Stelmach (Ed.), Motor control: Issues and trends. New York: Academic Press, 1976.
Adams J. A., & Dijkstra S. "Short-term memory for motor responses". Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1966, 71, 314-318.
Adams J. A., Marshall P. H., & Goetz E. T., "Response feedback in motor learning". Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1972, 92, 391-397.
Baddeley A. D. The psychology of memory. New York: Basic Books, 1976.
Bahrick H. P. "An analysis of stimulus variables influencing the proprioceptive control of movements". Psychological Review, 1957, 64, 324-328.
Bizzi E., Polit A., & Morasso P. "Mechanisms underlying achievement of final head position". Journal of Neurophysiology, 1976, 39, 435-444.
Broadbent D. E. Perception and communication. London: Pergamon Press, 1958.