Human Motor Behavior: An Introduction

By J. A. Scott Kelso | Go to book overview

variety of movements. For example, the instructor might roll up a mat on a gym floor and ask the children to go over the mat in as many ways as possible. You find the children jumping over with one leg to the other leg, both legs to both legs, backwards, frontwards, and so on.

Theoretically, the instructor is providing high variability of movement outcomes, presumably with the result that students are developing strong schemata. The beneficial effect of this would be that, when children grow up and are asked to jump in some new way--perhaps out of the way of a truck that is going to hit them, or in some sports activity--they can perform the new act more effectively because of their more-varied past experiences. The schema theory was not developed with movement education in mind, but it is interesting that the predictions of a theory aimed at explaining evidence from laboratory settings are so much in line with movement-education practice (see Schmidt, 1976a, for more on movement education and schemata).


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The project was supported in part by Grant No. BNS 7910672 from the National Science Foundation to the author.


REFERENCES

Adams J. A. "A closed-loop theory of motor learning". Journal of Motor Behavior, 1971, 3, 111- 150.

Armstrong T. R. Training for the production of memorized movement patterns. University of Michigan, Human Performance Center (Tech. Rep. No. 26), August, 1970.

Bartlett F. C. Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932.

Hollerbach J. M. "An oscillation theory of handwriting". Biological Cybernetics, 1981, 39, 139- 156.

Kelso J. A. S. "Motor control mechanisms underlying human movement reproduction". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1977, 3, 529-543.

Kelso J. A. S., & Norman P. E. "Motor schema formation in children". Developmental Psychology, 1978, 14, 153-156.

Kelso J. A. S., & Stelmach G. E. "Central and peripheral mechanisms in motor control". In G. E. Stelmach (Ed.), Motor control: Issues and trends. New York; Academic Press, 1976.

Kerr, R., & Booth, B. Specific and varied practice of a motor skill. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1978, 46, 395-404.

MacNeilage P. F. "Motor control of serial ordering of speech". Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 182-196.

McCracken H. D., & Stelmach G. E. "A test of the schema theory of discrete motor learning". Journal of Motor Behavior, 1977, 9, 193-201.

Merton P. A. "How we control the contraction of our muscles". Scientific American, 1972, 226, 30-37.

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