All Within the Union Are Brethren" (1941-1944)
The status of the free Negro in the United States immediately after emancipation still bore resemblance to that of the slave. The relations of the whites with the Negroes still reflected the former attitude of masters to slaves. The Negro's economic opportunities were limited and his social standing and political rights were curtailed by tradition and prejudice.
When in 1883 the second Civil Rights Bill giving the Negroes equality of treatment in theaters, railroads, hotels, and public places was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, practically every southern state enacted Jim Crow laws. By such schemes as the "grandfather clause," which qualified practically all the whites to vote but not the Negroes, and the setting up of property and literacy tests and "white primaries," the Negroes in the South were in effect disfranchised. Discrimination against the Negroes was not limited merely to social and political life -- it extended also to industrial life. In employment, only agriculture and domestic service were freely open to the Negro worker; other industrial occupations, except for certain unskilled jobs, were practically closed to him, in no small degree by the hostility of the white workers.
Organized labor's attitude toward the Negro worker in industry has not been without blemish. The white workers looked with suspicion on the attempt to add large numbers of Negro workers to the industrial force. They knew from experience that in strikes, employers made use of Negro against white and that generally