The reader should now be familiar with the background, objectives, procedures, and issues in multilateral, conventional negotiations. In this chapter we will discuss the various types of disarmament by definition. The focus is on negotiated, non- negotiated, and structural disarmament. An understanding of these kinds of disarmament will help to view the details of conventional arms control in a strategic context.
Arms control and disarmament are distinct and often value-laden terms. Disarmament is the most stringent and utopian term, which carries a common assumption that it means a "zero" outcome. Clearly, we are not writing about disarmament as purely defined. We are addressing arms reductions of weapon systems and associated force structure. The term "disarmament" here is used to subsume arms reductions and/or controls and simplifies an explanation that may encompass limitations (as in SALT I or II), reductions (as in CFE, START), and disengagements (as in armistice or war termination).
When discussing disarmament it is necessary to qualify the discussion as meaning "partial disarmament," since the word formally means "the laying aside or depriving of arms." Disarmament can be unnegotiated; negotiated in bilateral and multilateral fora; or can be brought about almost accidentally, as in "structural disarmament." In this section we will discuss all three forms of disarmament.
The Negotiations on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) and the Conference on Confidence- and Security-Building and Disarmament in Europe (CDE)