Making Campaigns Count: Leadership and Coalition-Building in 1980

By Darrell M. West | Go to book overview

schools and lukewarm support for voting rights legislation) and appointments ( William Bell for the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and Samuel Hart for the Civil Rights Commission) that black leaders bitterly opposed.17 Even more revealing, Reagan often expressed surprise when his actions provoked the fury of minority groups. While there may have been many reasons for these policy decisions, one cannot ignore the way Reagan's constituency allocations made him insensitive to minority concerns. Because he devoted little time trying to understand the problems of these groups (and substantial time trying to understand the views of those opposed to civil rights), his policy decisions bore the burden of that neglect. In this way, constituency allocations were intimately tied to the policy process.


NOTES
1.
See Crotty, Political Reform and the American Experiment, pp. 193-237 and Witcover, Marathon, pp. 21-35.
2.
See "1979 Travel Statistics," an unpublished campaign document that the George Bush for President Committee made available.
3.
Stephen Brams and Morton Davis, "The 3/2's Rule in Presidential Campaigning," American Political Science Review, 68, no. 1 ( March, 1974), pp. 113-134.
4.
See Stanley Kelley Jr., "The Presidential Campaign," in Paul David, ed., The Presidential Election and Transition ( Washington, D.C.: Brookings, 1961), pp. 57-87 and Claude Colantoni, Terrence Levesque, and Peter Ordeshook, "Campaign Resource Allocation under the Electoral College," American Political Science Review, 69, no. 1 ( March, 1975), pp. 141-154. Unlike Brams and Davis, who combined appearances of the presidential and vice-presidential nominees, Kelley analyzed them separately and found that each presidential contender used his running mate's schedule in different ways. For example, in 1960, Kennedy used his schedule to mobilize large, industrial states and Johnson's appearances to hold the South. In contrast, Nixon and Lodge allocated their time in a duplicative fashion. These differences suggest that researchers should not combine the appearances of presidential and vice-presidential contenders but rather should analyze them separately.
5.
Aldrich, Before the Convention, and Brams and Davis, "Optimal Resource Allocation in Presidential Primaries," presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C., August 28-31, 1980.
6.
Time is one of the most valuable resources in presidential campaigns. In part, its value comes from its scarcity. However, its value also rises because of the control that campaign organizers have over scheduling. Unlike financial resources, which depend on willing contributors, time is contributed and therefore controlled by candidates.
7.
Quoted in S. Rule, "Reagan Turns Down Invitation to Address N.A.A.C.P.," New York Times ( July 1, 1980), p. 36.
8.
See John Runyon, Jennefer Verdini, and Sally Runyon, Source Book of American Presidential Campaign and Election Statistics, 1948-1968 ( New York: Ungar, 1971).
9.
For example, in addition to constituency allocations, one can study substate allocations (how candidates allocate their time among different cities or regions of a state) as well as allocations of candidate activities (how they distribute their time among fund-

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Making Campaigns Count: Leadership and Coalition-Building in 1980
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments iv
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Preface xi
  • 1- Introduction 3
  • Notes 12
  • 2- The Changing Nature of Presidential Campaigns 15
  • Notes 34
  • 3- Candidates and Electoral Coalitions 39
  • Notes 62
  • 4campaign Rhetoric and the Political Agenda 69
  • Notes 92
  • 5- Constituencies and the Allocation Of Travel Time 97
  • Notes 114
  • 6- The Role of Political Symbolism 117
  • Notes 131
  • 7- Candidate Presentations and Audience Reactions 133
  • Notes 148
  • 8- Campaigns and Governance: Predicting Presidential Behavior 151
  • Notes 161
  • Appendixes 163
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliographical Essay 189
  • Index 193
  • About the Author 199
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