Making Campaigns Count: Leadership and Coalition-Building in 1980

By Darrell M. West | Go to book overview

be "locals" (using Robert Merton's terminology), professionals in presidential elections have broad orientations.10 They are not rooted in single congressional districts; instead they often have worked for candidates in different states. For example, pollsters and media advisors may consult with ten or fifteen races each year. This background gives them experience with phones that other activists may lack. But there are some problems with phone interviews that are minimized with personal interviews, namely the need to coordinate interview times. When one has an office appointment, the interviewer's physical presence helps to keep waiting time to a minimum (which usually varies from twenty to sixty minutes). In contrast, with phone interviews, the opportunities for delay beyond the appointment time are considerable. Perhaps my most memorable experience with this dilemma came when I left my home phone number with a secretary in Denver who promised me her boss (a prominent campaign official) would call around 9:00 P.M. Washington time. However, it was 1:30 A.M. when a ringing telephone dragged me out of bed to begin what turned into an hour-long interview. Fortunately, the interview proved interesting enough to justify the unusual time. But despite Fenno's admonition that field research is a "young person's" game, as a twenty-six-year-old researcher at the time of this project, I remained convinced that field research requires more youth than even young people have.11


NOTES
1.
Susan Stamberg, Every Night at Five ( New York: Pantheon, 1982), p. 148.
2.
Advisors also have several incentives to share experiences with researchers. Like most people, they love to talk about themselves and their work. In addition, some of them want to maintain good relations with opinion leaders, especially those who write the history books. And their need for legitimacy may make them accessible to scholars. As with any profession, their motives are diverse, and writers wanting access must experiment with different "pitches" to find out what works.
3.
At this time, I visited the Washington headquarters of the major candidates and sought brief conversations (not formal interviews) with middle-level officials, such as press aides and administrative assistants. Fortunately, the Washington office for most candidates housed their political and press operations. While occasionally candidates had offices located in their home bases, such as Los Angeles for Reagan and Houston for Bush, these "headquarters" normally served only the functions of finance, administration, and (sometimes) scheduling. It was the Washington office that contained the strategy center, especially for elected office-holders.
4.
This also shows that field research is a skill that requires extensive preparation. Rather than being the antithesis of methodology, careful research design is as much a part of methodology as statistical analysis.
5.
Secretaries were often the unspoken (and unacknowledged) heroes of this project. They helped bring recalcitrant advisors to the phone. They arranged interviews. They filled me in on their boss's idiosyncracies. And in some cases (after repeated phone calls), they even became friends. For their assistance, I thank them.
6.
Fenno, Home Style, pp. 250-251.
7.
I also learned to be wary of titles in campaign organizations. If researchers are not careful about specifying duties, they can end up with fifty-eight political advisors in every organization.

-174-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Making Campaigns Count: Leadership and Coalition-Building in 1980
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgments iv
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Preface xi
  • 1- Introduction 3
  • Notes 12
  • 2- The Changing Nature of Presidential Campaigns 15
  • Notes 34
  • 3- Candidates and Electoral Coalitions 39
  • Notes 62
  • 4campaign Rhetoric and the Political Agenda 69
  • Notes 92
  • 5- Constituencies and the Allocation Of Travel Time 97
  • Notes 114
  • 6- The Role of Political Symbolism 117
  • Notes 131
  • 7- Candidate Presentations and Audience Reactions 133
  • Notes 148
  • 8- Campaigns and Governance: Predicting Presidential Behavior 151
  • Notes 161
  • Appendixes 163
  • Notes 174
  • Bibliographical Essay 189
  • Index 193
  • About the Author 199
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 206

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.