A History of Japanese Mathematics

By David Eugene Smith; Yoshio Mikami | Go to book overview

CHAPTER III.
The Development of the Soroban.

Before proceeding to a consideration of the third period of Japanese mathematics, approximately the seventeenth century of the Christian era, it becomes necessary to turn our attention to the history of the simple but remarkable calculating machine which is universal in all parts of the Island Empire, the soroban. This will be followed by a chapter upon another mechanical aid known as the sangi, since each of these devices had a marked influence upon higher as well as elementary mathematics from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.1

The numeral systems of the ancients were so unsuited to the purposes of actual calculation that probably some form of mechanical calculation was always necessary. This fact is the more evident when we consider that convenient writing material

____________________
1
The literature of these forms of the abacus is extensive. The following are some of the most important sources: VISSIÈRE, A., Recherches sur l'origine de l'abacque chinois, in Bulletin de Géographie. Paris 1892; KNOTT, C. G., The Abacus in its historic and scientific aspects, in the Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Yokohama 1886, Vol. 14, p. 18; GOSCHKEWITSCH, J., Ueber das Chinesiche Rechenbrett, in the Arbeilen der Kaiserlich Russischen Gesandschaft zu Peking, Berlin 1858, Vol. I, p. 293 (no history); VAN R. NAME, On the Abacus of China and Japan, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1875, vol. X, proc., p. CX; RODET, L., Le souan-pan des Chinois, Bulletin de la Societé mathématique de France, 1880, Vol. VIII; DE LA A. T. COUPERIE, The Old Numerals, the Counting-Rods, and the Swan-pan, Numismatic Chronicle, London 1883, Vol. III (3), p. 297; HAYASHI, T., A brief history of Japanese Mathematics, part I, p. 18; HÜBNER, M., Die charakteristischen Formen des Rechenbretts, Zeitschrift für Lehrmillelwesen etc., Wien 1906, II. Jahrg., p. 47 (not historical). There is also an extensive literature relating to other forms of the abacus.

-18-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
A History of Japanese Mathematics
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 288

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.