THE EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY
The second Board, to be set up in 1953, 'might make a change'. The new High Authority, which preceded the Board by a few months, certainly would make a change. How would these régimes impinge on the development of steelmaking? How would they compare in action with each other, and with the American régime, 'antitrust', which was itself slowly changing, and which was the background of the technical advances which Europe wished to emulate and improve on? The answers lie in the future. It is still only possible to show the differences of principle which separated the systems--each system being in some aspect a recipe for competition--and to follow the earliest operations of the new systems, the ways in which the new authorities interpreted their functions and assessed and tried their powers.
This chapter accordingly traces the evolution of the European Coal and Steel Community. A brief glance at developments in the American industry follows, to be followed in turn by a survey of the first six years of the United Kingdom's Iron and Steel Board.
The hard core of the Schuman Plan was an economic prescription. The efficiency of Europe's coal and steel industries was to be increased, which would help to make Europe economically strong and independent. This was to be accomplished by creating a large 'common market', by promoting full employment, economic stability, and more competitive conditions, and by providing shock absorbers, as it were, which would make more rapid increase of efficiency acceptable by counteracting its