LESTER G. SELIGMAN, University of Oregon
THE MOST DRAMATIC and far reaching expression of political mobility in recent years is the rise of new nations. The products of a latter-day political messianism, most of these new nations are in a troubled way, beset with the practical translation of nationalistic ardor and vision into conditions for viable political independence and economic development.
The morning after independence has brought a "shock of recognition" of fragile underpinnings. Building a new nation is a rough, unchartered journey with many unanticipated problems. A recent description of Indonesia illustrates the problems of many developing nations in the last decade:
It [ Indonesia] suffers from an acute shortage of qualified or experienced personnel, a predilection for political intrigue rather than administration, and an intense resentment of any outside counsels of moderation. Fragmented into many geographic and cultural entities, hampered by bad communications and regional animosities, Indonesia's task of unification seems almost impossibly difficult. The country has been beset with official incompetence, opportunism and corruption, public ignorance and excitability, and economic dislocation intensified by bureaucratic muddle and malice. It has dissipated upon an anti-colonial, anti-capitalist campaign at home and abroad the energies and resources which might far better have been expended upon critical domestic problems which remain not merely unresolved but unanalyzed.1
In the new states, allocation of economic resources is primarily a governmental decision. Comprehensive economic planning, whether called Arab Socialism or "guided democracy," is the path chosen to economic growth and development, which means that the character and capacities of the political elites are of critical importance.
Everywhere in the new states are signs of the vagaries of uninstitu-____________________