This Encyclopedia -- with 900 articles written by 462 contributors -- is intended to be the first truly comprehensive public affairs reference. This four-volume work is designed so that its contents -- a combination of historical and descriptive articles, procedural presentations, and interpretive essays-will be of interest to the general reader as well as the specialist. It will serve students, teachers, scholars, journalists, political activists, and the general public as the one indispensable source of readily digestible information about public policy and administration in the modern world.
Contained herein are definitions of the vocabulary of public policy and administration as it is used throughout the world, from the smallest towns to the largest national bureaucracies. And when we say definitions we mean just that: All articles start by defining their topic. So if all the reader is seeking is a quick explanation of the meaning of a concept or practice, he or she need read no further than the first paragraph. The rest of the article will still be there if and when more detailed information is needed.
While some articles are more technical than others, the Encyclopedia is written to be accessible to those who are not experts in the various aspects of public affairs. Nevertheless, the content of the work has not been watered down; the ideas presented are every bit as sophisticated as public policy and administration experts have a right to expect. Writing level is essentially an issue of craftsmanship-not scholarship.
The Encyclopedia is a major effort toward the international integration of the literature on public policy and administration -- which are two sides of the same coin (policy being the decisionmaking side while administration is the implementation side). Included are articles on all of the core concepts, terms, phrases, and processes of the following aspects of public policy and administration: applied behavioral science, budgeting, comparative public administration, development administration, industrial/ organizational psychology, industrial policy, international trade, labor relations, management, nonprofit management, organization theory and behavior, policy analysis, political economy, political science, public administration, public finance, public law, public management, public personnel administration, public policy, and taxation.
Also included are articles on major scholars-such as Kurt Lewin, Dwight Waldo, and Aaron Wildavsky; political leaders who influenced administration-such as Jean Monnet, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson; major public managers-such as J. Edgar Hoover, Robert Moses, and James Webb; historically important committees, commissions and reports-such as the Brownlow Committee, the Glassco Commission, and the NorthcoteTrevelyan Report; slang terms-such as crowd out, muddling through, and red tape; significant nongovernmental organizations-such as the Ford Foundation, the International Institute of Administrative Sciences, and the United Way; and major government agencies-such as the Privy Council in the United Kingdom, the Office of Management and Budget in the United States, and the European Parliament.
This Encyclopedia is "international" because it contains extensive coverage of public policy and administration concepts and practices from throughout the world. Indeed, public administration is increasingly an international discipline. While the administrative systems of nation-states were once largely self-contained, today crossfertilization is the norm. The national marketplace of ideas, wherein policies and techniques once competed, has been replaced by an international marketplace. Thus there are articles on reinventing government in the United States, Thatcherism in the United Kingdom, and the New Zealand model. The reforms discussed in these articles (further elaborated upon by conceptual articles on devolution, managerialism, and market testing, among others) have been widely influential. Different political cultures, let alone differing administrative machinery, require different administrative solutions. Nevertheless, the compelling reason for students of public administration to be fully aware of the wealth of new management ideas and administrative experiments happening in other states is not so much to be able to imitate as to adapt.
In order to provide a sense of the cultural differentiation of the world's administrative regimes, many articles focus on the administrative traditions of a society; for example, the American administrative tradition, the German administrative tradition, and the Islamic administrative tradition. Other articles focus on unique administrative institutions within a state; for example, the Ecole Nationale d'Administration in France, the Federal Reserve System in the United States, and the Prime Minister's Office in Canada. Extensive coverage is also given to the practices and institutions of the European community; for example, directive, pillarization, and subsidiarity.
Finally, because so much of the public's administration is conducted outside of traditional government bureaucracies, extensive coverage has been given to nongovernmental and nonprofit organization management. Thus there are major articles on foundations, voluntary action, and the independent sector, among others.
The Encyclopedia is continuously alphabetized-from ability to pay, to zoning. This organization is especially