The United States, Cuba, and Castro: An Essay on the Dynamics of Revolution and the Dissolution of Empire

By William Appleman Williams | Go to book overview

11
The Revolution Assaulted from Abroad

The United States quickly interpreted Castro's actions of late 1959, and his trade deal with the Soviet Union early in 1960, as meaning that Cuba had become a totalitarian Communist satellite. Most commentators have followed that official government line. Neither claim is factually correct. But the ideology which provided that simple, arbitrary explanation of a very complex reality is nevertheless important because it also produced the counter-revolutionary invasion of Cuba in April, 1961, almost 63 years to the day after the United States went to war to pacify Cuba in 1898.

It appears very probable, indeed, that the CIA began before the end of 1959 to work with counter-revolutionary groups in Cuba. This activity increased throughout 1960 and into the first months of 1961. Along the way, it involved active American military support in providing air cover for the smuggling of arms and other supplies to Castro's enemies in Cuba. The formal American decision to arm and train an exile army, however, was not made until March, 1960.

This chronology of its Cuban operations, along with a great deal of other evidence, makes it perfectly clear that it is the CIA--rather than the military--which functions as an independent variable in the formulation and conduct of American foreign policy. The military does have great influence, both directly within the government and indirectly through its ties with the industrial complex of the country. Civilians gave the military such influence by defining the world in military terms (both in 1939 and again in 1945), but the military cannot independently conceive and mount an operation having immediate and profound effects on foreign policy.

-139-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The United States, Cuba, and Castro: An Essay on the Dynamics of Revolution and the Dissolution of Empire
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 184

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.