Stanlie M. James and
Abena P. A. Busia, eds., Theorizing Black Feminisms: The Visionary Pragmatism of Black Women ( New York: Routledge, 1993), p. 240.
Samella S. Lewis, The Art of Elizabeth Catlett (Claremont, CA: Hancraft Studios, 1984), p. 102.
Faith Ringgold, We Flew Over the Bridge: The Memoirs of Faith
Ringgold ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1995), p. 159.
See Norma Broude and
Mary D. Garrard, eds., The Power of Feminist Art: The American Movement of the 1970s, History and Impact ( New
York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994), for a description of the organization,
the names of the members, and a photograph, pp. 106-7. This text
includes the most extensive coverge of black women in the feminist art
movement. Ringgold's We Flew Over the Bridge also describes the activities of the organization.
See Beverly Guy-Sheftall, ed., Words of Fire: An Anthology of African
American Feminist Thought ( New York: The New Press, 1995).
Ringgold, We Flew Over the Bridge, p. 196.
Jean Fagan Yellin, ed., Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Written by
Herself ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987), p. 77.
Ringgold, We Flew Over the Bridge, p. 197.
Eleanor Flomenhaft, ed., Faith Ringgold. A 25 Year Survey, exh. cat.
(Hempstead, NY: Fine Arts Museum of Long Island, 1990), p. 23.
Gumbo Ya Ya: Anthology of Contemporary African American Women
Artists ( New York: Midmarch Arts), p. 226.
See Thalia Gouma-Peterson's insightful analysis of Ringgold's
story quilts in Flomenhaft, Faith Ringgold, pp. 23-32. See also Gouma- Peterson's "Faith Ringgold's Narrative Quilts", Arts Magazine, vol. 61,
no. 5 ( January 1987): 66-68, for a more extensive discussion of The
Cheryl A. Wall, ed., Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism,
Theory, and Writing by Black Women ( New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989), p. 1.
Ringgold, We Flew Over the Bridge, pp. 11-12.
Yolanda M. López and
Moira Roth, "Social Protest: Racism and
Sexism", in Broude and
Carrard, The Power of Feminist Art, p. 140.
See her stunning research on institutionalized racism within prestigious New York museums and galleries, which she presented at Hunter
College in 1987 and later published as "Art (World) and Racism: Testimony, Documentation, and Statistics", Third Text, vol. 3, no. 4 ( Spring/ Summer 1988): 157-62.
See bell hooks, "Straighten Up and Fly Right: Making History Visible", in Emma Amos: Paintings and Prints, 1982-92, exh. cat. (Wooster,
OH: The College of Wooster Art Museum, 1993), pp. 15-28. The
interview is reprinted in hooks Art on My Mind: Visual Politics ( New
York: The New Press, 1995).
Lowery Stokes Sims, "Aspects of Performance in the Work of
Black American Women Artists", in Feminist Art Criticism: An Anthology,
Cassandra L. Langer, and
Joanne Frueh ( New York: HarperCollins, 1991), p. 219.
Joyce Scott, En Masse/Fiber ( St. Louis: St. Louis Gallery of Contemporary Art, 1988), n.p.
I have written here not as an art historian or art critic, but from my vantage point and training as a women's studies scholar who documents
the intellectual, cultural, and political history of black women. I am also
interested in the participation of black women in both black liberation
movements and feminist movements and have analyzed our erasure in
scholarly treatments of both struggles. By locating contemporary black
women artists within the broader black feminist movement that began
in the nineteenth century and continues to the present, this essay complements the point of view in my book Words of Fire: An Anthology of
African American Feminist Thought.