THE PRESENT BOOK IS AN EXPANDED AND revised version of my Rossiia v XIX veke, which was published in Russian in 1956 by the Chekhov Publishing House of the East European Fund in New York. The sections dealing with cultural history have been enlarged for English-speaking readers, and a new chapter on events during World War I up to the fall of the monarchy, as well as an epilogue, have been added. Some illustrative excerpts from Russian source material had to be omitted because they would lose their flavor in translation. Portions of the text have been rearranged in accordance with a revised chapter structure. The bibliography has been substantially revised to include, in addition to source material and literature in Russian, the most important items in English.
The book is divided chronologically into several major periods, and then broken down by subject into four parts: internal political developments, social and economic conditions, foreign relations, and cultural history. The latter part is the most difficult to handle in a short survey, and occasionally it comes close to being a mere enumeration of persons and their major works, which should nevertheless prove helpful as a reference for further study.
I wish to acknowledge my warm gratitude to the Sterling Library of Yale University for the opportunity to use its treasures; to Professor Robert H. McNeal and Mrs. Tova Yedlin for their