Cultural Development after the Mid-Nineteenth Century
The educational system of prerevolutionary Russia was, with some exceptions, molded along the lines prevailing in continental Europe, particularly in Germany. The institutions of higher learning included the universities, universities for women, several military academies (general staff, naval, medical, engineering, law), four theological academies, academies and conservatories of art and music, and numerous specialized technological institutes and academies.
At the end of the reign of Alexander II there were eight universities in Russia: in Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Kazan, Yurev (Dorpat), Odessa, and Warsaw. During the reign of Alexander III the University of Tomsk was opened in Siberia, and universities were opened in Saratov in 1910, in Perm in 1915, and in Rostov-on-the-Don in 1917. All were state universities, bearing the designation "imperial," but in 1908 they were joined by a "free" institution, the Shaniavsky People's University, which was established by the Moscow municipal government. At the end of the nineteenth century the total number of students in the universities was about 16,000, but in the years before World War I the enrollment increased to about 40,000, with approximately 8000 entrants per year.
The University Statute of 1884 limited the autonomy of the universities by giving the minister of education the power to appoint university rectors (formerly elected by the faculty) and to disregard the faculty vote in the appointment of new professors. This change, however, did not lower academic standards. At the opening