Harold Nicolson:
PEACEMAKING, 1919

As the son of a British diplomat, Harold G. Nicolson was born in Persia and reared in various British embassies abroad. For twenty years he was himself in the foreign service of his country and attended the Peace Conference as a member of the English delegation. His writings have ranged from journalism to biography, history, and the novel. In Peacemaking, 1919, Nicolson traced the course of his own disillusionment with Wilson's approach to international affairs.

ON January 8, 1918, came the Fourteen Points.Much casuistry, and some wit, has been expended upon these historic pronouncements. President Wilson himself referred to them in 1919 as "certain clearly defined principles which should set up a new order of right and justice." On the very same day we find Mr. Balfour writing of them as "certain admirable but very abstract principles." Yet were they so very abstract? Considering the date at which they were first issued, the Fourteen Points are precise to the point of recklessness. It may be well to summarise them as follows:Speech of January 8, 1918."The programme of the world's peace, therefore, is our programme, and that programme, the only possible programme, as we see it, is this:
1. "Open covenants of peace openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private understandings of any kind, but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view."
2. "Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas outside territorial waters alike in peace and in war. . . ."
3. "The removal, as far as possible, of all economic barriers. . . ."
4. "Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety."
5. "A free, open-minded and absolutely impartial adjustment of colonial claims based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the Government whose title is to be determined."
6. "The evacuation of all Russian territory. . . ." "Russia to be given unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy." Russia to be welcome, "and more than welcome" in the League of Nations "under institutions of her own choosing" and to be given every form of assistance.
7. Belgium to be evacuated and restored.
8. France to be evacuated, the invaded portions "restored" and Alsace- Lorraine returned to her.
9. "A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognisable lines of nationality."
10. "The peoples of Austria Hungary . . . to be accorded the freest opportu-
____________________
From Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking, 1919, pp. 38-44, 195-207. Reprinted by permission of the author.

-35-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Wilson at Versailles
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 114

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.