The Domestic Politics of German Unification

By Christopher Anderson; Karl Kaltenthaler et al. | Go to book overview
in 1990 operated under electoral rules not exactly identical but very similar to the German system.
3.
For a quick overview of the electoral system, see Max Kaase ( 1984), "Personalized Proportional Representation: The 'Model' of the West German Electoral System", in Arend Lijphart and Bernard Grofman (eds.), Choosing an Electoral System. ( New York: Praeger), 155-164.
4.
The Greens/ Bündnis90 is the electoral alliance of the East German Greens and a number of citizen initiatives that had helped bring about the ouster of the Communist regime. Bündnis90 stands for Alliance 1990. PDS/LL stands for Party of Democratic Socialism/Left List.
5.
This number is 318 today because one of the Bavarian CSU members, a twelve-year Bundestag veteran named Ortwin Lowack, left the CSU in April 1990 and has not joined a new party or parliamentary group.
6.
These scholars do not suggest, however, that the transfer of the German party system should extend to candidate recruitment and organizational patterns. For a view that suggests some level of party identification on the part of voters in eastern Germany, see Bluck and Kreikenbom 1991.
7.
There is only one member elected in the West who is not a member of the CDU/CSU, SPD, or FDP: Ulla Jelpke (PDS/LL), who was elected via the party list from North Rhine-Westphalia.
8.
For 1990 I followed the classification scheme used by Schindler Datenhandbuch zur Geschichte des Deutschen Bundestages and Kiirschner Volkshandbuch Deutscher Bundestag. This scheme classifies all members who attended and/or graduated from college (Universitäten, Pädagogische Hochschulen [PH], Fachhochschulen [FH], college-level Akademien). It should be mentioned that the coding of college-level education is not without problems, especially with regard to the comparability of the different types of colleges that existed in the former GDR and the FRG.
9.
In the last East German parliament (Volkskammer) 32.2 percent of the deputies had been female ( Journal für Sozialforschung 1, 1991: 91).
10.
This is, of course, partially a function of the smaller number of East German representatives.
11.
Percentages, instead of the actual number of seats, are given since the total number of Bundestag deputies has changed over time. Between 1949 and 1953 there were 242 directly elected members. With the accession of the Saarland the number was increased in 1957 to 247. From 1965 until 1987 the number was constantly at 248 directly elected members, and, as mentioned above, in 1990 the number was increased to 328. In 1990 the PDS/LL and the FDP each won one district in the East and in 1949 there were a number of small parties that also won a small number of direct seats. These are not included here. In general, however, the CDU and the SPD have won the district races. Since the numbers of districts won by these two parties mirror each other almost exactly, only the percentage of districts won by the CDU is shown here. A safe seat is defined as a seat for which the member receives 55 percent or more of the vote, following the standard usually employed by political scientists and used in the Datenhandbuch zur Geschichte des Deutschen Bundestages.

References

von Klaus. Beyme 1991. "Electoral Unification: The First German Elections in December 1990". Government and Opposition 26, 1:167-184.

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